Access to inputs leads to increased yields and higher farmer incomes

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Statement of belief Theoretical rationale for belief
Providing farmers with inputs leads to higher yields and incomes Inputs provide produce with more nutrients, protect it from disease and provide better growing conditions
Literature availability Limitations of literature
High.png Most studies focused on Africa, uncertainty whether benefits justify costs for smallholders, focused on maize and fertilizer
Reviewed Literature
Reference Relevant findings Numerical range Rigor (H/M/L)
Geta et al, 2013 (Ethiopia, maize)[1] Fertilizer and hybrid seed are statistically significant in enhancing maize yield. N/A H (random sampling of 385 farmers, stat. analysis)
Bayite-Kasule et al, 2011 (Uganda, maize and Robusta)[2] Fertilizer use improves yields for maize and Robusta. Fertilizer use is constrained by lack of information and variation in returns ~100% yield increase M (survey, 265 farmers)
Benson et al, 2012 (Tanzania)[3] Fertilizer, particularly that containing nitrogen and phosphate, increases yields. However, very little research has been done on whether these yield increases justify fertilizer costs for smallholders 400% (maize)

100% (rice)

M (~50 interviews, survey of ~200 farmers)
Nelson and Pound, 2009[4] 29/33 case studies found that Fair Trade certification led to higher revenues. 27/33 case studies found that Fair Trade certification led to more stable incomes. N/A H (review of 23 Fair Trade studies - 33 case studies)
Dorward, 2009 (Africa)[5] Fertilizer significantly affects yields, particularly for cereals and root crops. Successful input subsidies target staple rather than cash crops, are sustained medium to long term and are targeted at producers that need them most N/A H (review of several large-scale programs in Africa)
Additional Literature
  • Mutegi et al, 2012[6]
  • Evenson and Mwabu, 1998[7]
  • Gordon, 2000[8]
  • Msuya et al, 2008 [9]
  • Notes[edit]

    1. Girabi, Frank; Mwakaje, A. E. . (2013). Impact of microfinance on smallholder farm productivity in Tanzania: The case of Iramba district. Asian Economic and Financial Review, 3(2), 227–242.
    2. Bayite-Kasule, S., Korugyendo, P. L., Benson, T., Productivity, I. A., Challenges, N., Hall, A., & Ababa, A. (2011). Fertilizer use among smallholder farmers in Uganda. Paper presented at the conference Increasing Agricultural Productivity and Enhancing Food Security in Africa: New Challenges and Opportunities, 13 November 2011, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    3. Benson, T; Kirama, S; Selejio, O. (2012). The Supply of Inorganic Fertilizers to Smallholder Farmers in Tanzania: Evidence for Fertilizer Policy Development. International Food Policy Research Institute Discussion Paper 01230, (December).
    4. Nelson, V., & Pound, B. (2009). The Last Ten Years : A Comprehensive Review of the Literature on the Impact of Fairtrade. Natural Resources Institute Research Report, (September).
    5. Dorward, A. (2009). Rethinking Agricultural Input Subsidy Programmes in a Changing World. Paper prepared for the Trade and Markets Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
    6. Mutegi, E. M., Biu, J., Pieter, P., & Mugendi, D. N. (2012). Complementary effects of organic and mineral fertilizers on maize production in the smallholder farms of Meru South District , Kenya. Agricultural Sciences, 3(2), 221–229. doi:10.4236/as.2012.32026
    7. Evenson, R.E; Mwabu, G. (1998). The effects of Agricultural Extension on Farm Yields in Kenya. Economic Growth Center Discussion Paper No. 798, Yale University, (798).
    8. Gordon, A. (2000). Improving Smallholder Access to Purchased Inputs in Sub-Saharan Africa. Natural Resources Institute Policy Series 7.
    9. Msuya, E. (2008). An Analysis of Productivity and Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Maize Farmers in Tanzania. Paper presented in the XII World Congress of Rural Sociology of the International Rural Sociology Association, Guyang, Korea, 2008, 81(0).